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Basel III - Auswirkungen auf die Finanzierung von klein und mittelständischen Unternehmen

  • The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the fairly recent Basel III regulations, and to find out if they have impacts on the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises. Therefore, the theoretical impacts on financial institutions and on small and medium-sized enterprises would be analysed and compared to the real development. Basel III is an advancement to Basel I and II and contains stricter capital and liquidity requirement regulations for financial institutions, as well as a leverage ratio. The purpose is to create a financial sector, which would be more resistant against crises. Because the liquidity requirements and the leverage ratio are not, or only partly introduced yet, the thesis focuses more on the capital requirements. These requirements, demand banks to deposit a higher percentage of equity for each credit operation, depending on the risk. It is expected that financial institutions will face an excess need of capital to fulfil the requirements. On the one hand, banks could increase their equity, which hypothetically could lead to higher capital costs as well as an increase of credit costs. That would in turn result in worse credit terms for SMEs. On the other hand, banks could reduce their risk-weighted assets to lower the need for new capital. That could minimize the capacity of the credit business and lead to difficulties for SMEs in obtaining a loan. An empirical study, based on a theoretical simulation, came to the result that there will be a slight worsening of the credit terms and the credit supply for SMEs. Regarding to the question “if the new capital requirements are appropriate for SME-loans”, it shows that there is no increase of risk in that segment. Therefore, the capital requirements should be adjusted for these kind of loans. The theoretical impacts of the liquidity requirements and the leverage ratio are also expected to affect the loans for SMEs, which are the second important financing instrument. To compare and analyse the theoretical impacts to the real development, latest empirical studies were used to get a picture of the current situation. It shows that the group of financial institutions that are relevant for SME-loans have a moderate increase in their equity basis and almost no decrease of their risk-weighted assets. Theoretically, that should lead to worse credit terms and no change in the credit supply. While analysing the realised external funds made in recent years, it is affirmed that there is no decline in the credit supply. Regarding the increased capital basis, there is no worsening in the credit terms perceived in the reality. The favourable key interest rate could be the reason for that, because it compensates the increased capital cost. Hence, Basel III does not represents a threat to the mid-sized sector in average. However, it can be stated that, the smaller the enterprises are, the more difficult it is to get a loan and the worse the conditions are.

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Author:Joscha Armbruster
Advisor:Michael Lederer
Document Type:Bachelor Thesis
Year of Completion:2015
Year of first Publication:2015
Release Date:2015/11/26
Degree Program:IBW - Internationale Betriebswirtschaft
Functional area:Finance & Accounting